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Edited by Anton Treuer and Michael Sullivan Sr.

Illustrated by Jonathan Thunder

Minnesota Historical Society Press (August 2021)


Written in the Ojibwe language, these delightful short stories bring to life the tales and traditions of the Ojibwe people while providing essential tools for language-learning.

Gaa-pi-izhiwebak, which means "What Happened," is an Ojibwe-language collection of nonfiction reminiscences, cultural teachings, and histories told by elders from the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe. It is part of a series of monolingual books produced with Aanjibimaadizing, a program of the Mille Lacs Band that means "Changing Lives." Through the Aanjibimaadizing Project, 15 first speakers teamed with linguists, teachers, and Ojibwe language experts to create this new literature for Ojibwe language learners. Conceived and written only in Ojibwe, the stories reflect a rare authenticity as they transmit cultural values, increase vocabulary, and reinforce identity. Gaa-pi-izhiwebak is intended for middle school and high school readers.

Also of interest
Anooj Inaajimod
Akawe Niwii-tibaajim​
Ge-ni-aabadak Giniigaaniiminaang

Author information

Aanjibimaadizing, which means "Changing Lives," is a program of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.

Anton Treuer, professor of Ojibwe at Bemidji State University, is the author of The Language Warrior's Manifesto and fourteen other books on Indigenous history and language.

Michael Sullivan is the resident linguist for the Waadookodaading Ojibwe Language Immersion School on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation.

Jonathan Thunder, a member of the Red Lake Nation, is a multidisciplinary artist and the illustrator of the best-selling children's book Bowwow Powwow.


  • This title is also available at your favorite e-book vendor.
  • Ojibwe language
  • Paperback
  • 216 pages
  • 78 color illustrations
  • 6 x 9 inches
  • ISBN: 9781681342160

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