Minnesota History Magazine Summer 2019 (66:6)
Black Cloud: The Struggles of St. Cloud’s African American Community, 1880–1920
Christopher P. Lehman
A small community of refugees from the Jim Crow South found their way to St. Cloud by 1910. In the aftermath of the 1917 expulsion of James Boozer, an African American man who had engaged in an interracial relationship with a white St. Cloud woman, the fragile community dispersed, not to be revived for decades.
WPA–Built Golf Courses in Minnesota
By the 1930s, golf had spread beyond the leisure class to the masses. While the idea of Works Progress Administration (WPA) funds going to build golf courses—in Minnesota and the rest of the country—during the Great Depression may seem surprising, the labor-intensive efforts required to create the links fit squarely into the WPA’s mission to put the unemployed to work.
“Minnesota Is Open to Everything”: Queer Hmong and the Politics of Community Formation in the Diaspora
Kong Pheng Pha
Weaving together Hmong refugee migration histories and mainstream queer histories reveals a complicated picture of how these disparate but interrelated developments created the conditions for queer Hmong communities to emerge and thrive in the Twin Cities in the early years of the twenty-first century.
A Souvenir Spoon—from Stillwater State Prison
Ace Café, St. Paul
Book Review or Book Reviews
Book Review: Woman Suffrage and Citizenship in the Midwest, 1870–1920 by Sarah Egge
Review by Kristin Mapel Bloomberg