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Mni Sota Makoce

Mni Sota Makoce

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The Land of the Dakota

Author Gwen Westerman, Author Bruce White

Minnesota Historical Society Press (September 1, 2012)


An intricate narrative of the Dakota people over the centuries in their traditional homelands, the stories behind the profound connections that hold true today.


Much of the focus on the Dakota people in Minnesota rests on the tragic events of the 1862 U.S.–Dakota War and the resulting exile that sent the majority of the Dakota to prisons and reservations beyond the state’s boundaries. But the true depth of the devastation of removal cannot be understood without a closer examination of the history of the Dakota people and their deep cultural connection to the land that is Minnesota. Drawing on oral history interviews, archival work, and painstaking comparisons of Dakota, French, and English sources, Mni Sota Makoce tells the detailed history of the Dakota people in their traditional homelands for at least hundreds of years prior to exile.

“Minnesota” is derived from the Dakota phrase Mni Sota Makoce, Land Where the Waters Reflect the Clouds—and the people’s roots here remain strong. Authors Gwen Westerman and Bruce White examine narratives of the people’s origins, their associations with the land, and the seasonal round through key players and place names. They consider Dakota interactions with Europeans and offer an in-depth “reading between the lines” of historical documents—some of them virtually unknown—and treaties made with the United States, uncovering misunderstandings and outright deceptions that helped lead to war in 1862.

Dakota history did not begin with the U.S.– Dakota War of 1862—nor did it end there. Mni Sota Makoce is, more than anything, a celebration of the Dakota people through their undisputed connection to this place, Minnesota, in the past, present, and future.

Author information

Gwen Westerman is professor of English and Humanities at Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Bruce White is author of We Are at Home: Pictures of the Ojibwe People.

Reviews and news

Winner of the 2014 Hognander Minnesota History Award

Winner of the 2013 Minnesota Book Award in the Minnesota Category

Winner of a 2013 AASLH Award of Merit

Star Tribune Review

Interview on Native Report (video)

Publishers Weekly

Hibbing Daily Tribune

Chisago County Press

Books Make a Difference blog

Tune in to NPR’s This American Life Nov. 23 for
“Little War on the Prairie” featuring Gwen Westerman

Reading Group Guide prepared by the Friends of the Saint Paul Public Library

  • This title is also available at your favorite e-book vendor.
  • 296 pages
  • 50 b&w illustrations, 15 color images, 2 maps, notes, index, tables, bibliography
  • 8 x 10 inches
  • ISBN: 9780873518697

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